STEARMAN TRAINING GUIDE (2019)
IF THE ABOVE LINK DOESN’T WORK THE FOLLOWING HAS MOST EVERYTHING. IT IS AN UPDATED VERSION OF MY “STEARMAN TRAINING GUIDE.” I’VE ELIMINATE THE REFERENCES TO THE CAF (AN ORGANIZATION THAT WAS ONCE A WONDERFUL PLACE TO VOLUNTEER MY TIME). THE PRESENT LEADERSHIP LOCALLY AND NATIONALLY AS MADE THE CAF A POOR NEIGHBOR AND ONE I CAN NOT ABIDE.
REGARDING THE STEARMAN TRAINING GUIDE — PLEASE NOTE: SOME IMAGES DID NOT IMPORT NOR DID SOME EMBEDDED LINKS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE A FULL UNABRIGED COPY, JUST SEND ME AN E-MAIL!
“Stearman” Training Program Boeing Model 75
Navy N2S (Army Air Corps PT-17)
What follows is the background information for the Boeing Model 75 “Stearman.”Lloyd Stearman was the original designer and builder of the pre-model 70‘s. However, Lloyd Stearman was not involved in the design of the model 75 albeit they are all called “Stearman.” The official name is“Kaydet.” A Boeing design team designed the model 70/73/75. All of these model’s were produced at the Wichita plant. The model 75 became the A-75 to E-75. I still do not know why there were no “C” or “D” models.
The example I am using (964) a B75N1 and was originally built for the Navy in 1943 as a N2S-3 which meant it was equipped with the Continental R-670-4. The current engine is the civilian version of the -4. 964 operates with an W-670-6N producing 220 horse power.
964 is certified in the Aerobatic Category. I bought this aircraft from Richard Parrish, Carbondale, Illinois. I restored it in 2010 and sold it to American Airpower Heritage Flying Museum, Texas.
Post-war civil requirements for surplus military Stearman’s is covered by Aircraft Specification A-743. This document lists all the approved equipment allowed on a standard category Stearman and the items that must have been removed, replaced or modified when the military surplus Stearman was first licensed as a civilian airplane. Over the years there have been many models and STC’s for the Stearman Series. The Stearman makes an outstanding and fun civilian aircraft. The owner/pilots enjoy fly-ins, air-shows, formation flying and a variety of activities. STEARMAN PILOT MINIMUMS:
This can be accomplished in the classroom and/or one-on- one (instructor and pilot) ground training as an annual requirement.
Subjects covered: POH: including Limitations; aerodynamics; systems; engine and propeller operation; tail-wheel flying procedures and FARs (regulations).
Written Examination covers all subjects.
Following ground-school when you are ready, you should fly with a qualified Stearman Instructor/(IP) Check Pilot until until proficiency is attained. Training to proficiency is required regardless.
First, the day’s mission is briefed by the IP.
Second, you will fly as briefed.
Third, a post-flight de-brief will be covered by both IP and student.
First Instructional Flight:
SID*: Student will be assigned either the front or rear seat
for the first flight. The instructor may decide it is the trainee’s best interest to occupy the front seat for the first flight. This will eliminate the trainee’s extra duties of radio communications. Again, SID.
Pre Flight, Starting, Taxiing, Take-Off (may initially include reduced power takeoffs [power controlled by the instructor] and take-offs with only half the runway width available). Again, SID.
NOTE: NO three-point take-offs during the training process except for instructor demonstrations as instructional tool (at runways in excess of 6000’).
*SID = Subject to Instructor Discretion Maneuvers:
Arguably, the best FLIGHT training maneuver in the Stearman is to hold the aircraft nose on a geographical point, in level flight, while rolling the bank back and forth to 60 degrees of bank. These are commonly, although incorrectly, called Dutch Rolls.**
Slow-Flight, Stalls, Steep Turns (45° and 60°bank), three point Stall Landings. The Instructor will be watching the trainee to ascertain he/she is not using aileron input during the stall, but correctly using rudder input.
** technically, DUTCH ROLL is a phenomenon that occurs occasionally in swept-wing aircraft due to an out of phase roll/yaw combination mostly due to where the swept wings are located. Some early model Lear Jets have experienced this phenomena as well.
Second (and subsequent) Instructional Flights:
Instructor will determine which seat Trainee shall occupy.
Note: No two students learn at the same rate. This is subjective and at the discretion of the instructor (SID).
Instructor will insure the Trainee has experience with NORMAL -CROSS WIND – BALKED LANDINGS – STALL (THREE-POINT) LANDINGS and WHEEL LANDINGS.
WITH IP ON BOARD:
ON LONG RUNWAY (8000’ MINIMUM) PERFORM WHEEL LANDINGS CONSIDER TAKEOFF AND WHEEL LANDING PRACTICE USING THE FOLLOWING (IP on board):
MEMORIZE SIGHT PICTURE
LIFT ONE WHEEL, THEN THE OTHER
TAIL UP (after proficient with tail down aborts)
PRACTICE ABORTS TAIL DOWN
NOTE: I consider any tail-winds in any tail-wheel aircraft an emergency! It is best to ask for a runway change or divert to another airport.
Regardless of Stearman experience:
NO quarterly tail-wind landings – EMERGENCY ONLY!
NO tail-wind landings – EMERGENCY ONLY!
Solo pilots with less than 500 hours in the Boeing Model 75 “Stearman” should be restricted to a MAXIMUM 8 Knot Cross Wind.
15 kt. cross-wind maximum (DUAL & high time pilots*). *more than 500 hours in the Boeing Model 75
NO TOUCH AND GO LANDINGS AND TAKE-OFF’S IN THE STEARMAN!
INSTRUCTORS SHOULD ENSURE THAT EACH TRAINING LANDING IS A STOP AND TAXI-BACK (OR STOP AND GO at runways longer than 8000 ft).
NOTE: Instructor will insure the Trainee has experience with at least one Take-Off and Landing with FULL FUEL and 60 LBS in the baggage compartment. (Not to exceed 2950 pounds Gross Weight).
Any pilot in the aft seat weighing fewer than 175 pounds should carry an additional 25-35 pounds in the baggage bin. This will reduce potential tail-wheel shimmy due to forward CG.
THE OVERALL GOAL OF THE CHECKOUT PROGRAM RESULTS IN TRAINING TO PROFICIENCY IN ALL ASPECTS.
INITIAL TRAINING: SUGGESTS 20 hrs and 60 landings minimum with an IP prior to release for solo flight.
Stearman PICs with less than one-year experience or having fewer than 25 hours experience should undergo:
1. 90 Day Progress Checks with an instructor for first 12 months after training program competed.
2. ALL Stearman pilots should maintain takeoff/
landing currency within 30 Days. (Minimum: 3 Take-Offs and Landings to a full stop).
3. If a Stearman PIC’s currency lapses, he/she should perform 3 Take-Off s and Landings to a full stop with a qualified Instructor.
4. If a Stearman PIC’s currency lapses in excess of 60 days, he/ she should complete the entire Proficiency Flight.
Following initial training completion a flight check by another IP is recommended.
Passengers: should be thoroughly briefed prior to flight.
Stearman PIC’s should have logged a minimum of 25 hours AND 60 landings in the Stearman prior to flying Revenue Flights.
Gross weight: 2950 lb. Maximum (Note: Military used 2726.7 lb.) Baggage 60 lb..
Fuel: 46 gal. (gravity feed, 4-7 gal not available in flight)
Oil: 4.4 gal. capacity (operationally use: 3.5 to 4.0 gal Aeroshell W120 recommended. W100 in cold climate.
Power Off Stall Speed at max GW: 55 mph (48 kts)
Power On Stall Speed at max GW: 51 mph (44 kts)
Do not exceed speed: 186 mph (163 kts)
Fuel consumption: 12-13 gal./hour (15-16 gph for aerobatics)
Normal Cruise Speed: 95mph (83 kts)
Endurance: 3.4 hours (approx.) most pilots plan 2 to 2.5 hrs
Maximum Range: 300 sm (260 nm, no reserve, most pilots plan 200 sm) Service Ceiling: Maximum 13,300 ft. Initial Rate of Climb: 800 ft./min.
NOTE: NO AEROBATICS UNTIL TRAINED BY IP!
Slow Rolls (under 124 mph/108 kts)
Snap Rolls-Inverted Flight-Inverted Spins
Boeing Model 75 Military Designation / Engine
A75B4 N/A to Venezuela
A75L3 and A75L5 A75N1 PT-17
Lycoming R-680-5 Lycoming R-680-7 Lycoming R-680-11
N/A to various foreign countries Continental R-670-4 & -5
|A75N1 N2S-1 Continental R-670-4|
|A75N1 N2S-2 Lycoming R-680-8|
|A75N1 N2S-4 B75 N2S-2 B75N1 N2S-3Continental R-670-4 & -5 Lycoming R-680-8Continental R-670-4(N-47964) (S/N: 75-7540)|
|D75N1 PT-27 to Canada – Continental R-670|
|E75 PT-13D/N2S-5 Lycoming R-680-17|
|Engine note: It was required that all Continental R-670 engines, when transferred to civilian use, be|
|re-designated and have the engine identification plate|
|changed to show the civilian designation.|
Continental Engines Military Designation Civilian Designation
|R-670-5 W670-6A R670-4, -11A,|
|N-47964 Continental W670-6N is installed.|
|Airframe Airworthiness Directives:|
The Boeing/Stearman Model 75 has had five Airworthiness Directives issued for it. Only two of these apply to the stock airplane while the other three apply to agricultural duster/ sprayer airplanes.
Due to inadequate drainage forward of the ailerons, water drain holes must be drilled in the dural angle forming the lower rear
edge of the wing at the aileron gap.
Upon initial certification as a civilian aircraft and at each subsequent annual inspection the fuel tank in the center section must be removed and the spars inspected for moisture damage. The drain holes must be ascertained to be open.
Repeated removal of the fuel tank is not required if after the initial inspection of the center section the gap between the upper surface of the center section is sealed by doping on fabric to prevent moisture from entering the fuel tank compartment.
Propeller A.D.s: A.D. 54-12-02
McCauley steel blade propeller Models 41D5926 and D-1093. Each 100 hours of operation a magnetic (magna-flux) inspection of hub and blade shanks for cracks must be completed.
Aircraft tachometer must be placarded “Avoid continuous operations between 1500 to 1650 rpm.”
NOTE: 964 is occasionally equipped with an MT wood propeller. NO AD associated with this propeller.
NOTES: Review the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH). You might want to copy one. One is required on board each flight.
IP will demonstrate proper N2S preflight.
Walk around the aircraft – check overall condition of the aircraft. Visually check tire inflation. MAKE CERTAIN WHEELS ARE PROPERLY CHOCKED!
Remove oil bottle from Curtis valve under engine (Not all Stearman’s have this device). Stow in plastic bag in baggage compartment or remember where you left it!
Be CERTAIN to snap-close the Curtis valve!! Specifics: CAUTION:
Check front cockpit for belts/headset/bag secure (solo flight) If flying with CAF PAX – Brief passenger on ingress/ egress LEFT side using rubber walk-way and upper wing hand-holds.
Make sure passenger is briefed with belt/harness properly secured.
Brief PAX on use of Intercom with mike close to mouth.
Show PAX fire bottle location and explain release of bottle from
When assisting passenger ingress: Do NOT to put knee pressure on the side of the fuselage as this is known to “pop” the tape along the stringer there. It will dent the stringer as well!
Also, the “suit case” handles (lower aft fuselage) are for pulling NOT pushing for the same reason!!
Mag switch OFF
Leave the aircraft with all Switches on electrical panel off except the Strobe Light/Nav Light switch left in up or on position.
Check TXPDR (leave on per new FAA directive)
Fuel valve ON
Control lock OFF
Stearman aircraft have a variety of Control Lock devices/ mechanisms.
Check: Oil – Smoke Oil (if installed) – Fuel – Prop
FAA Airworthiness, Registration, Insurance, & Weight/ Balance
Check that all required paperwork is on board.
OIL: 3.5 to 4 Gal (Max capacity 4.4 gal) (Cap secure)
IF INSTALLED: BE SURE TO CHECK CURTIS VALVE IS
CLOSED (snapped down) WHEN YOU REMOVE THE OIL RECOVERY BOTTLE!
Fill smoke oil tank to 1/2 full unless X-C then full.
FUEL: unless going X-Country operate at 1/2 to 3/4 full. Tank holds 46 gal max. (approximately 40 gal usable)
McCauley prop: check the clevis pin for movement & cotter pin secure (should have some wiggle)
MT prop: check hub bolts – general prop condition.
Pull thru 10 blades. (Note: I have found that normally the propeller stops at a point where, later, pulling the prop thru 10 blades prevents the Continental’s lower cylinders exhaust valve opening which allows oil to seep out the “weep” holes at the bottom of the lower cylinder exhaust stacks). “Technique.”
16 PSI recommended in the POH (sod runways) (964’s tires set for
25 psi for better wear and handling on hard surface runways) Dzus fasteners: secure all panels plus baggage hatch.
Check Primer SECURE!
Seat adjustment UP/DOWN & SECURE
Rudder Pedal adjustment FORE/AFT & secure
Mixture Full Rich (Except for taxiing do not lean below 5000’ MSL – as stated in the original POH – recommended 3000’ MSL with 73 octane fuel. We use 100 LL and have found it preferred to lean above 5000’ MSL. However, this is technique based upon experience). Enrichment valve discussed later…
Carb Heat Cold
Prime the engine with 6 shots cold engine / 4 shots warm engine
VERIFY THE PRIMER KNOB IS LOCKED! Fire hazard if not secure!
(Primer control knob arrow pointed down – pull and verify locked)
When prop is clear, and ready to start, Raise Red guarded switch on electrical panel to allow starter switch to be moved UP.
Two pumps on throttle with throttle cracked 1/4” to 1/2” open THEN as the starter rotates the propeller – after 3-4 blades Mag switch to BOTH unless hand propping is necessary – If so, RIGHT Mag only to reduce chance of kick-back.
Oil Pressure in Green Arc within 30 seconds.
Stay below 1000 RPM until Oil Temperature is above 20 deg. LEAN mixture until engine sounds/feels rough then slightly move mixture control ahead by 1/4”.
Alternator switch, Strobe Light switch, Radio Master switch ON. Close Red guarded starter switch.
Transponder ON – ALT. (Recent change in the AIM).
RADIOS: IP Will explain use of each radio during initial cockpit pre-flight. BE FAMILIAR WITH THE SELECTOR SWITCH ON THE ELECTRICAL PANEL. PHYSICALLY VERIFY IT’S POSITION
Slow ground speed – Use 45° “S” turns for visibility.
NOTE: “S” Turn so you do not lean-out to see down the taxi-way. As soon as you see the yellow line and no obstacles turn the other direction. 45° works fine to visually keep a view ahead on the taxi- way.
NO BRAKES unless idle power!
NOTE: To prevent carbon build-up on the bottom spark plugs, be sure to use lean mixture while taxiing. Here’s what BRAND NEW SPARK PLUGS look like, with less than one hour flight time since installation, BY TAXIING FULL RICH:
# 4 Cyl Bottom front plug #2 Cyl Top front plug Note the darker carbon build-up even on the facing edge… RUN-UP:
Oil temp above 20 deg. C for > 1000 RPM RPM – 1400 for Mag Mixture Rich for run-up and take-off!
Check (125 RPM drop max – 25 RPM drop min)
Flight Controls Free – Full & Correct (visually check each) Trim set 1/4” Nose Up (full travel = 270 deg.)
Instruments – Check “in-the-green!”
Non-Formation Flight: Strobes On – Transponder ALT TXPDR -
1200 unless otherwise directed by ATC.
NOTE: The N2S-3 originally had a tail-wheel lock – 964 has been modified to the over-center / kick free type
CARB HEAT Cold
HEELS ON FLOOR (bottom of the rudder pedals). BRAKES ARE LAST RESORT! The center-line is your friend! Smoothly add power to Throttle Full Forward.
RELAX control stick – do not force tail up prematurely.When the tail wheel starts to unstick, hold the tail wheel just off the surface. DO NOT raise the tail up more than 4” to 6” per graphic below.
You will feel the stick pressure lighten and the tail will want to come up with an increase in speed – ease back with slight back- stick pressure – maintain tail-low – the airplane will fly off naturally.
Below: graphic shows the Stearman profile with the tail too high - the tail just right – and the profile when static with the struts compressed.
While it is natural to want the tail up/nose down for over-the-nose visibility it can bite you in the butt! Until you have over a thousand hours in the airplane get used to using your peripheral vision for runway alignment! Your IP will show you how to develop the proper sight picture for landing and takeoff…
Upper depiction: TAIL TOO HIGH Center depiction: TAIL LOW (GOOD)
Bottom depiction: TAIL AT THREE-POINT ATTITUDE
It is VERY important to understand the need for peripheral
vision during take-off and landing CLIMB:
Keep pitch attitude low initially and accelerate. Accelerate to a good climb speed of 80 IAS. 75 – 85 is OK. Less than 75 inhibits engine cooling and reduces over-the-nose visibility.
Interestingly the climb rate is nearly the same once stabilized on speed of either 75or 80. 80 IAS provides visibility both in climb and approach mode.
KEEP YOUR HEAD ON A SWIVLE!
Passing thru 500’ ease the throttle back 1/4 inch (fuel enrichment valve). No RPM change. This will save gas and not affect engine cooling.
Normal MAX RPM = 2075
NOTE: With the McCauley propeller installed: NO continuous RPM
between 1500-1650 (prop vibration). YELLOW ARC on tach.
Change RPM if you see noticeable vibration on flying wires!
No RPM restriction (up to 2075 RPM) with the MT propeller installed.
MAX RPM in a dive = 2280 (NOT CONTINUOUS)
No fuel pressure gauge is installed – however fuel pressure is approximately 1.5 to 2 PSI (Gravity system)
Fuel burn varies between 12.8 GPH to 20.8 GPH depending upon RPM and Altitude. For practical purposes use 13 GPH for X-C planning…
Oil pressure = 70-90 PSI normally. Oil temperature = 60-70 deg. C.
KEEP HEAD ON A SWIVLE!!
CONSIDERABLE student training in and around KFFZ!
75 – 80 IAS (I like 80 for better over-the-nose- approach visibility) Check Carb Heat Cold (unless conditions dictate otherwise)
(ENGINE OUT Glide Speed = 65 IAS)
Over the approach end of the runway 70-75 IAS
HEELS ON FLOOR – FEET OFF BRAKES
ALWAYS REMIND Front Seat PAX – FEET BACK AWAY FROM RUDDER PEDALS
LOSS OF CONTROL/GROUND LOOP
SEVERAL instances with the Stearman were not ground
loops. Rather, they were runway excursions resulting in lower right wing damage when the wing struck a dirt mound in the process of re-entering the runway.
HOWEVER This airplane has a much deserved reputation for ground loops! Actually, the aircraft does what it was designed to do!!
During the second instance, the airplane suffered additional side- load damage to both the right main gear assembly and the tailwheel assembly.
Your job is to defeat the tendency of the airplane to deviate from your intended track on takeoff or landing.
In almost all cases during takeoff, the cause of the left swerve was gyroscopic precession, not torque. Gyroscopic precession is proportional to the rate of pitch change during transition from a three-point attitude to a tail up attitude. Pilots sometimes raise the tail too rapidly in an effort to see the runway over the aircraft nose. Gyroscopic precession yaws the nose to the left with great enthusiasm! At that point, the pilot may have a great view of the runway out the right side of the cockpit. Pilots who accept the lack of visibility over the nose, until the tail has been raised very gradually, do not have problems with gyroscopic precession. In fact, with no crosswind, a knowledgeable and skillful pilot can maintain runway heading during takeoff by varying the rate of pitch change and with almost no rudder pedal input at all. If the tail is raised slowly enough, the normal right rudder input may yaw, slightly, the nose to the right. Raising the tail a little more rapidly will compensate and yaw the nose to left. Overall, the BEST rate that the tail is raised is as aforementioned and mandatory in the Model 75 “Stearman.”
Use of ailerons is NOT helpful in these situations. Aileron use when rudder is required causes ADVERSE YAW. In a GROUND LOOP situation, ailerons do NOT help. All that happens is you get to pay for a $3600.00 aileron. Wing replacement costs $18,000.00. So, it makes sense to increase the training profile for the Boeing Model 75s…
Aerodynamics can be made simple if you understand some of the complexities. In the aforementioned explanation, where the statement states that ailerons are not helpful, it is important to visualize what happens when you make an aileron input“naturally.”
It is simply just in our nature to want to assist, a necessary correction to our flight and ground path, with aileron. DON’T!!
If the swerve occurs opposite aileron is a hinderance. If aileron
is used it should be in the direction of the swerve NOT opposite. “…AILERONS: steer into the direction of the ground loop!!”
RUDDER is your friend!
Visualize what happens to the wing when aileron input is made. The dynamics are that you change the wing chord such that ailerons are deflected differentially, left up and right down; or left down and right up. This we all know, and it is second nature to try to correct adverse trajectories with improper aileron input.
The rising wing generates increased lift which causes increased induced drag. The descending wing generates reduced lift which causes reduced induced drag. The difference in drag on each wing produces the adverse yaw. There is also often an additional adverse yaw contribution from a difference in profile drag between the up-aileron and down-aileron.
I remember my fluid dynamics class at ASU where the smoke in the wind tunnel produced an amazing visual for this phenomena. Sorry, but you will have to use visual imaginary as to what this is all about and then try to remember it the next time the Stearman tries to take you to the weeds..
DETECT any small deviation quickly and immediately respond with small – precise – aggressive correction.
DO NOT OVER-CONTROL: Use finesse. Many ground loop accidents occur in the opposite direction of the initial deviation. Think “happy feet” not “stomping feet!”
DO NOT BRAKE UNLESS LAST RESORT!
Some aircraft such as the T-6/SNJ are stable using brakes with the tail up. The Twin Beech and DC-3 are as well… NOT SO with the STEARMAN!
STICK FULL BACK ADD POWER to blow the rudder a bit if needed. ALWAYS remember: NO penalty in GOING AROUND
The prop-wash effect occurs immediately and prominently on
the takeoff run as the RPM comes up and at low airspeeds where the fin and rudder aren’t yet of much help. The tail wheel is effective, so keeping it down until you get more airflow
over the rudder helps.
The helical propwash is still there and acting on the rudder and fin at all attitudes and airspeeds. At cruise, the fin and rudder are positioned with a cant so that it just offsets the left turning pressure of the helical propwash.
At High RPM and low airspeeds such as takeoff and climbout, right rudder is required. At lower RPM and higher airspeeds, such as descending, there is too much right fin correction and some left rudder is required.
Well there it is!!! It’s the Helical Propwash that causes all that left turning force on a Stearman takeoff!!
A great reference available on the internet is a book written by John S. Denker, titled “How it Flies,” can be found at the following web address:
It covers all aspects of aerodynamics in easy to understand and colorful language. I recommend it highly.
DRIFT! If you can prevent DRIFT on takeoff or landing BINGO! You WIN! & the Stearman loses!
Slow. Taxi with “S” turns – Minimize brake use. NO BRAKES unless needed to maintain directional control. Again, NEVER BRAKE unless at idle power during taxi.
SPEED: No faster than a tall man can walk!
30 – 40 seconds at 1000 RPM for oil scavenge, (last flight) Fuel Valve OFF, 500 – 600 RPM: Magneto SW rapidly OFF/ON grounding Mag check.Then move the mixture control to idle cutoff; Magneto Switch “OFF” after propeller stops rotating. Master SW OFF along with all switches on the electrical panel OFF except for the Strobe Light switch (leave UP or ON).
Make note of the HOBBS meter time. Note the fuel on board and Note the fuel on board along with the oil level.
After exiting the aircraft: Install oil bottle and simultaneously open the Curtis Valve with the bottle cap. Once oil has stopped draining, pour this oil back into the oil tank.
Complete Log Book, Notify maintenance of any squawks.
Please wipe oil from BOTH outside AND inside the cowling. Wipe insect residue from wings/gear leg/tail. IMPORTANT: Please wipe
the top of the gear struts to reduce abrasion to seals.
Check Oil: Oil dip-stick is spring loaded. To secure, push in then twist to the Ensure both cap tabs are catching the tank orifice.
25 psi (16 psi was recommended early on when operating out of grass fields with knobby tires). 25 psi for extended wear and performance on hard surface runways. 964‘s tail wheel tire is presently solid rubber.
FUEL: Unless flying cross-country, re-fuel to between 1/2 & 3/4 full. Half full = 23 gal. Three Quarters full = 34 gal. OIL: Operate between 3.5 & 4gal. Aeroshell 120W.
Smoke Oil: Unless cross-country – maintain smoke oil at 1/2 full which helps reduce seepage from oil cap.
NOTE: When pushing by hand DO NOT push on leading edge of wing or horizontal stabilizer surfaces! It leaves dents! Push using the “N” struts!
YOUR Personal LOG BOOK:
Be sure to log your time from when the wheels begin to roll until they stop at the end of your flight! The Hobbs time is for the aircraft only and records after 40 mph is achieved and stops recording below 40 via airspeed switch mounted on the ASI.
Call me if you have any questions!!
Blue Skies & Tailwinds…
www.CaptainBillyWalker.com (480) 773-2823
16 NOV 2019